In the past 20 years, humans have suffered several serious epidemics from emerging viruses, such as SARS, swine flu, Ebola, MERS and (most recently) SARS-CoV-2. During each epidemic, an accurate, rapid, and accessible molecular diagnostic test is highly essential for the control and prevention of viral diseases. In particular, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly in most countries, resulting in a severe global pandemic, which has a profound impact on the world economy and people’s normal life. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 has been the most crucial measure for controlling the ongoing pandemic. In general, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the primary method for detection of nucleic acid-based genetic sequences. Because of the labor-intensive sample preparation, which must be conducted in a biological laboratory by professionals using specialized instruments, the typical turnaround time of the RT-qPCR method is longer than 24 hours. In addition, the complex RT-qPCR process might also reduce clinical sensitivity, resulting in false negative results.