Neurons are the primary cells of the nervous system, and the signals that are transmitted between them are responsible for all our actions and our cognitive ability. In particular, learning and memory are believed to be associated with a process called ‘long-term potentiation,’ which is the strengthening of connections between specific neurons via continued signal transmission through synapses (small gaps between neurons). Long-term potentiation can change the connection between neurons via synapses—by changing their size and composition. Understanding how long-term potentiation occurs can be valuable to clarifying how our brain learns and retains new knowledge. A team of scientists from Japan has now made significant strides in the understanding of long-term potentiation. Read on to know how!