The human immune system comprises functionally specialized cellular defense mechanisms that protect the body against disease. These include the dendritic cells. Their main function is to present antigens to other immune cells, especially T cells, thereby activating a primary immune response. Dendritic cells are divided into Type 1 (DC1) and Type 2 (DC2) dendritic cells. Each type fulfills different functions: DC1 provide an immune response to bacteria and viruses, DC2 protect against fungal or parasitic infections. In a recent study conducted at MedUni Vienna’s Institute of Cancer Research, researchers found that a particular group of proteins plays a major role in the development of Type 1 dendritic cells. This could open up new therapeutic options in the defense against viruses or bacteria but also for cancer immunity.